adaptation: changes populations of organisms make over evolutionary time to adjust to environmental changes.
alevin: larval salmon or steelhead from the time of hatching to the time of absorption of the yolk sac. Alevins remain in the gravel.
adaptive management: changing program strategies to reflect findings of monitoring and research to insure that resources are invested in methods that are achieving greatest success.
alkaline: substances with a pH greater than 7.0 that form corrosive substances in water, a high concentration of hydroxyl (OH) ions.
ammoecete: immature lamprey residing in fresh water.
anadromous: fish born in fresh water, migrating to the ocean during adult phase but returning to fresh water to spawn.
anaerobic: processes not requiring oxygen or an environment lacking oxygen.
aquatic invertebrates: animals without skeletal structures that reside in the water such as insects, snails, crayfish, and amphipods.
artificial culture (propagation): any human assisted spawning and rearing of fish in any type of hatchery facility.
BIA: U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (Deptartment of the Interior).
BKD: bacterial kidney disease, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, which attacks the kidneys and often leads to mortality when smolting is attempted.
bedload: sediments too heavy to be transported constantly but which shift during high flows.
behavior: anything an organism does involving action and response to its environment.
boulder cluster: instream structure to redirect water flow and create pools or pocket water for fish spawning and rearing habitat.
broodstock: adult fish retained for artificial propagation; stock on which a hatchery population is founded.
bulk gravel sampling: analyzing a grab sample or freeze core of spawning gravels to determine the amount of fine sediment present.
CCC: California Conservation Corp.
CDF: California Department of Forestry.
CDFG: California Department of Fish and Game.
CDWR: California Department of Water Resources.
coded wire tag (CWT): microscopic piece of metal implanted in nose of salmon or steelhead with code indicating origin of fish (all coded wire tagged salmon must have an adipose fin clip).
carrying capacity: the maximum number of organisms a particular habitat can support throughout a year without damage to either organisms or habitat.
centripetal gene flow: theoretical concept that remnant fish runs from collapsed fish populations may retain a large effective populations (Ne) embodying the genetic diversity of ancestral population.
Ceratomyxa shasta: protozoan which can be lethal to salmon, steelhead, and trout. Thought to reproduce in marsh areas but the free living form has not been identified and the life cycle of the organism remains unknown.
check dam: structure constructed in gullies to prevent soil loss; used extensively after fires.
cohort: a group of fish all spawned in the same year.
Columnaris: fish disease caused by Flexibacter columnaris, which attacks the gills and exterior of salmon or steelhead.
conservation: the preservation, or wise use of, natural resources, as forests, fisheries, etc., for recreational or economic use.
constant fractional marking: marking a consistent percentage of releases from all hatcheries.
cottid: fish which are members of the sculpin family (Cottidae); freshwater forms often called bullheads.
counting weir: fence or series of panels across a stream to allow counting of migrating salmon or steelhead; fish are often tagged to use in spawning escapement estimates.
cover: vegetation or other features that provide shelter for fish.
culvert: a closed passage way (such as a pipe) under roadways which drains surface water; replacing undersized culverts is a key erosion prevention measure.
cumulative effects: damage occurring as a result of watershed disturbance, often triggered by flood events, with sediments persisting in streams over a prolonged period of time and impacting all downstream areas.
cyprinid: fish belonging to the minnow family, Cyprinidae, the largest family of fresh water fish in North America; includes minnows, dace, shiners, and chubs.
dace: fish belonging to the minnow family; adapted to warm water conditions.
debris flow: slurry of rock, water, mud, and organic debris moving down mountain slopes and stream courses.
decomposed granite: sand and fine sediment from loosely consolidated granite rocks which reduces spawning success of salmon and steelhead when present in streams.
delta: a fan shaped deposit of sand and gravel found at the mouth of a stream.
detritus: organic matter partially from disintegrated rock but usually at least in part from dead plants or animals.
digger log: log placed near a stream margin to scour a pocket primarily for rearing habitat; often secured to bank by imbedding or with cable.
direct observation: teams of divers with masks and snorkles counting fish.
dissolved oxygen (D.O.): the amount of oxygen dissolved in water.
drainage: a watershed.
drift net: a gill net supported upright in water by floats attached to the upper edge and sinkers along the bottom so as to be carried by the current or tide.
EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
EPA Reach File: inventory of stream systems used by the EPA based on USGS 1:100,000 maps.
ecosystem: community of organisms in a given area together with their physical environment and its characteristic climate.
electrofishing: using an electric current to sample fish populations.
electrophoresis: using different electrical characteristics of amino acid sequences from proteins from tissues (of fish) to determine genetic make up.
enhancement: production of additional fish at a hatchery over and above fish produced at the facility for mitigation.
erosion: movement of soil by water and wind.
escapement: number of fish which escape harvest or natural mortality and return to spawn.
estuary: the mouth of the river where fresh water and salt water mix; influenced by tides.
eutrophic: lake classification used to describe bodies of water with high levels of nutrients in proportion to their volume of water.
fecundity: fertility; number and size of eggs (in fish).
fin clip: removing a fin from a hatchery reared salmon or steelhead to allow identification in biological studies or for selective harvest in mixed stock fisheries.
fingerling: a juvenile fish that has reared in fresh water and attained a size of 24 inches. Usually has parr marks and is the life history stage between a fry and a smolt (referred to as parr on the Atlantic Coast).
fish ladder: a stairstepped fishway that helps fish pass over obstacles such as low dams or diversions.
fish screen: screen used to block migration of downstream migrants into agricultural diversions.
fishway: a man made structure to help fish move around obstacles in streams.
flow: the direction of water movement in a stream or river; the volume of fluid that flows through a passage of any given section in a unit of time.
fry: recently hatched salmon or steelhead that have absorbed their yolk sac and emerged from the gravel.
GIS: geographic information system; any mapbased land or resource inventory system.
gabion: a wire basket filled with rocks formerly used as spawning weirs but now used primarily to stabilize banks.
gene: the chemical unit of hereditary information that can be passed on from generation to generation.
gene flow: the spread of genes from one breeding population to another by interbreeding (requires some survival of hybrid individuals).
genetic diversity: the range of genetic differences among individuals or groups of organisms.
genotype: the genetic composition of an individual.
gill net: a net suspended vertically in the water used to catch fish by the gills, preventing them from backing away and escaping. Different sized mesh are used for different species or size classes of fish.
geomorphology: the science of surface landforms and their interpretation on the basis of geology and climate.
gradient: degree of slope or steepness of a stream or geologic feature.
grilse: a young salmon in the sea or which returns to the river to spawn after only one year in the ocean. Males are also known as jacks.
habitat: the native environment of an animal or a plant providing food, water, and shelter; the kind of place that is natural for the growth of an animal or a plant.
habitat typing: a stream inventory technique which classifies the wetted stream channel into high and low gradient riffles, runs, glides, pocket water, and various types of pools. Usually done in conjunction with fish population estimation using direct observation.
halfpounders: immature steelhead that have spent less than one year in the ocean and accompany adults on their spawning run; may be of either summer or fall/winter stock group; exist in only the Rogue, Klamath, Eel, and Mad Rivers.
hatchery fish: fish originating from a hatchery or other artificial culture facility.
homing: behavior that leads adult salmon or steelhead to return to their stream or lake of origin to spawn.
hybridizing: interbreeding between fish of different subpopulations or between species.
hydrology: study of distribution, circulation, and properties of water.
IFIM: instream flow incremental methodology; method of determining the change in available habitat for fish associated with changes in flow; usually used below dams to judge effects of reduced flows; also called instream flow studies.
IHN: infectious hematopoetic necrosis, a viral disease that afflicts salmon and steelhead.
inbreeding: breeding through a succession of parents that are closely related potentially resulting in reduced fitness.
inbreeding depression: decreased fertility of a hatchery stock resulting from inbreeding.
irrigation diversion: water drawn from streams to water land for crops or livestock.
KFMC: Klamath Fisheries Management Council; allocates harvestable surplus of anadromous fish from the Klamath River between user groups.
KRTAT: Klamath River Technical Advisory Team which serves KFMC.
KOHM: Klamath Ocean Harvest Model formulated by KRTAT for KFMC to judge stock abundance to help in setting harvest levels.
kdam: instream structure built in the shape of a "k" to retain spawning gravels and to create rearing habitat.
Landsat: satellite orbiting the Earth that relays images back that can be used to assess weather, geologic features, land use patterns, or vegetation types.
large woody debris: logs or large pieces of trees that fall into streams and form important habitat elements for fish; also called large organic debris (LOD).
life history: various life stages of an animal and variations in behavior or migrations associated with each.
limiting factors: those conditions in a stream or ecosystem that inhibit population growth.
log weir: log placed across a stream to trap spawning gravels and create a jump pool below; mimics natural recruitment of large woody debris.
longitudinal profile: measurement taken from a fixed height lengthwise in a stream which indicates changes in sediment supply.
macroinvertebrates: larger aquatic organisms without skeletal structures such as snails, insect larvae and adults, crayfish, and crustaceans.
maximum sustainable yield (MSY): the greatest
number of fish that can be taken without reducing the number of individuals
necessary to propagate the species.
mass wasting: down hill movement of massive amounts of soil or rock, carried by gravity but often triggered by flooding or intense rainfall.
mitigation: to make less severe; fish planted at hatcheries to offset losses of salmon and steelhead production in areas blocked by dams.
mixed stock fishery: any fishery conducted on fish stocks from several river basins, or from hatchery and native populations, as they intermix in a lake or in the ocean.
multispectral images: information relayed from Landsat in the spectrum of visual light but also in infrared and ultraviolet.
mutation: genetic change.
NCIDC: Northern California Indian Development Council (Eureka, California).
NMFS: National Marine Fisheries Service (Deptartment of Commerce).
native fish: selfreplicating populations of salmon and steelhead that return to various tributaries at various times that do not coincide with the range or timing of hatchery stocks.
natural fish: (as used in this Plan) those fish spawning outside a hatchery but with run timing and distribution indicating that they are strays from hatcheries, ie. salmon spawning in the Trinity River near Lewiston below Trinity River Hatchery.
nonpoint source pollution: pollution that enters waterways from a broad land surface area as a result of land management; such as sediment from logging deposited in stream channels.
NTU: Nephelometric Turbidity Unit.
ODFW: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
O&M: operation and maintenance.
outplanting: transportation and release of juvenile fish away from the hatchery site.
PCFFA: Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations.
PFMC: Pacific Fisheries Management Council.
PPL: Pacific Power and Light Company.
pH: measure of hydrogen ions that determine the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, the pH scale ranges from 114 with 7.0 being neutral; the scale is logarithmic, with a change of 1.0 representing a tenfold increase and a change of 2.0 representing a hundredfold increase.
phenotype: the actual characteristic appearance or behavior of an organism produced by the genotype in conjunction with the environment.
planting: releasing of hatchery fish.
pools: deeper and slower waters in a stream or river.
population: group of interbreeding individuals of a specific kind, in a given area, at a given time.
priority stocks for recovery: those stock groups having significant production potential but that have been reduced to levels where further decreases in population may cause losses in genetic diversity. All steps necessary to avoid further declines should be taken by the Restoration Program immediately.
putting a road to bed: reshaping an old roadway to conform to the angle of the adjacent hill, removing culverts, and mulching and planting the old road surface.
RAPID: riparian aerial photographic inventory of disturbance (Grant 1987); technique using aerial photos to discern changes in stream channel widths related to sediment transport.
RCD: Resource Conservation Districts.
radio tagging: implanting radio transmitters in adult salmon or steelhead to monitor the rate of migration and time and place of spawning.
redd: a nest in the stream substrate in which salmon and trout lay their eggs.
residualism: loss of behavioral or physiological compulsion to perform anadromous migration.
riffle: fast shallow waters of a stream; low gradient riffles are less than 2% gradient while high gradient riffles are from 27%.
riparian area: wet soil areas directly influenced by a stream, lake, or wetland.
riprap: rock covering used to protect stream banks from erosion.
SCS: United States Soil Conservation Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture).
STEP: Salmon Trout Enhancement Program; a volunteer program to help salmon, steelhead and trout in Oregon.
SWRCB: State Water Resources Control Board (California).
salmonid: any fish belonging to the family Salmonidae which includes all trout, char, salmon, and whitefish.
scale analysis: analyzing the spacing of rings on a fish scale to determine age of a fish or its early life history.
scour: removal of gravel or other material by moving water.
sediment: solid particles of soil or rock transported and deposited by water.
sediment budget: a quantitative statement of the rates of production, transportation, and delivery of sediment in a basin.
smolt: a juvenile salmon or steelhead that has attained readiness to migrate to sea; parr marks are lost and silver color taken on; gills and kidneys change from retaining to excreting salt.
stock (n): a species or population of fish that maintains itself over time in a defined area.
stock (v): to provide; to plant or release.
stock transfer: transporting stocks of fish from their native home range.
strays: fish from a hatchery that do not return to the hatchery and instead spawn in the wild; salmon and steelhead that return to spawn in other than their home stream.
substrate: inorganic material that forms the bottom of a stream.
suckers: fish belonging to the family Catostomidae with soft rayed fins and a toothless mouth with suckerlike protractile mouth and thick lips.
Task Force: in this text refers to Klamath River Basin Fisheries Restoration Task Force.
troll: to draw a fishing line with baited hook or lure through the water from the stern of a moving boat.
USFS: United States Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture).
USFWS: United States Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S. Department of the Interior).
USGS: United States Geological Survey (U.S. Department of the Interior).
water bar: ditches or boards which cross a road at an angle and divert water flow to prevent gully formation.
water quality: characteristics of water that help determine its usefulness for whatever purpose desired.
watershed: all the land area that drains into a particular body of water.
watershed rehabilitation: using erosion control to decrease soil loss from hillsides and to decrease sediment supply to streams.
weirs: structures spanning a stream; used by Indians to temporarily block spawning migrations to enable harvest, such as Cappell weir; used for instream structures (see log weir) and to estimate populations of salmon (see also counting weir).
white spot: bacterial disease of the egg thought to be caused by Cytophaga sp.
year class: all fish arising from the hatch of a given year; syn. cohort.
yearling: juvenile hatchery salmon or steelhead reared at the hatchery for one year before release.