When Does Dwapara Yuga Really Begin?

And how does the Age of Aquarius fit into the Yuga cycle?

Therese Hamilton

In Hindu philosophy and cosmology the term “Yuga” refers to an epoch within a cycle of four ages. These are the Satya Yuga, or highest age, Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and finally the lowest age, Kali. These cycles are said to repeat like the seasons, waxing and waning within a prolonged time-cycle. Traditionally this cycle of yugas covered a period of creation—an ascending or evolutionary period followed by a descending period of devolution. Each yuga is said to involve stages which the earth and the spiritual consciousness of mankind go through as a whole. A complete yuga cycle progresses from a high Golden Age of enlightenment to a dark Kali Age of material consciousness out of which humanity must slowly climb to reach the heights again.

Anyone who has read the The Holy Science by Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri knows that he introduced a Yuga timing system which at that time (1894) was a novelty to the Indian mind accustomed to thinking of yugas in terms of millions of years. At the time The Holy Science was written it was believed that only about 5000 years of a dismally long Kali Yuga period of 432,000 years had passed. Sri Yukteswar explains how this error in calculation came about; any interested person can obtain a copy of his small book or read the explanation on the internet.

Sri Yukteswar’s shortening of the overall Yuga cycles to align with the approximately 24,000 cycle of the earth’s precession of the equinoxes is entirely logical, and in fact was the original basis for yuga measurements prior to the mistaken change in the almanacs as explained in The Holy Science. How did Sri Yukteswar arrive at his zero date of 499 A.D., the very bottom of the cycle—the junction between the descending and ascending Kali yugas? The key phrase in The Holy Science is on page 17: "The astronomical reference books show the vernal equinox now to be 20°54' 36" distant from the first point of Aries (the fixed star Revati)..."

The lowest date corresponds with the year when the tropical or seasonal zodiac (which begins at the vernal equinox each year) was believed to be in exact alignment with the beginning of the sidereal zodiac which is measured against certain fixed stars in the sky. Sri Yukteswar very likely obtained the calculation of the lowest or zero date from Surya Siddhanta, one of the oldest and most revered Sanskrit astronomical texts. This text was in use in the centuries in which Sri Yukteswar lived. Many believe that the Surya Siddhanta was produced by divine revelation and came from Surya the Sun God. This astronomical reference (along with others at the time) places the zero ayanamsa date—the date when the tropical zodiac of the west aligned exactly with the sidereal zodiac of the east, at 499 A.D.

The problem with this ayanamsa value is that the mathematics which devised the zero date were based on what we now know to be faulty astronomical theory. The zero ayanamsa date in Surya Siddhanta does not come from India’s most ancient texts, but rather is the product of a Sassanian (Persian) reform of astronomical tables in the year 556. The resultant zero date was calculated using the cycle of Jupiter, which we know today is not the way to compute precession.

However this ayanamsa and zero date became the value of the Greek-Arabic-Hindu zodiacs at the time, and subsequently appeared in the Surya Siddhanta. The first degree of Aries was aligned with Reveti (zeta Piscium). Anyone who wishes to study the ayanmsa question can read the detailed article on the Swiss Ephemeris site: http://astrozet.net/Manual/swisseph.htm#_Toc6813680

As a matter of fact, using a more correct precessional value, the figure taken from the cited astronomical reference books in The Holy Science (20°54' 36") does not compute to a 499 zero date, but a date of approximately 397. The zero ayanamsa date of 499 was not universally accepted by astrologers, even though the date was found in so respected a work as Surya Siddhanta. This is evident from commentary by India’s foremost astrologer, B.V. Raman in A Manual of Hindu Astrology (1935). By Raman’s time it was understood that the zero point of Aries lay somewhere in the Reveti group of stars (lunar mansion), but was not connected to a specific star. Raman has a section of text in his book titled “Exact Date of Calculation not known.”

The exact period when both the zodiacs coincided in the first point is not definitely known and accordingly the ayanamsa—the precessional distance—varies from 19° to 23°. The star which marked the first point seems to have somehow disappeared, [!!] though some believe it to be 11 minutes east of the star Pisces. A number of dates are given as the year of coincidence...which to accept, and which to reject, has been a matter of considerable debate. No definite proof is available in favor of any one of the dates given...No amount of mere speculation would be of any use......(p. 51)

The ayanamsa eventually chosen by B.V. Raman gives a zero date of 397, so he apparently took the figures from astronomical references and adjusted them slightly to find his zero date. Thus, the Raman ayanamsa is very close to that cited in The Holy Science, and is still used today by his family and stauch followers.

It has apparently not occurred to non-astrologers that a zero date devised in the depths of Kali Yuga might need some adjustment in the more enlightened age of Dwapara. I can hear a chorus of protests: “But Sri Yukteswar was one of the earth’s great self-realized masters. He has to be right.” In principle, the Yuga ages outlined in The Holy Science are, of course, correct. But the author also had to use the reference almanacs of his times. As I said, the key phrase is “The astronomical reference books show....” Consider the reaction of India’s priests and astronomers if Sri Yukteswar had. stated, “Well, the Surya Siddhanta has this value, but looking into the future I see that with improved technical instruments and a better understanding of astronomy, a more accurate timetable of yugas will emerge in the 20th century.” It's also possible that some well-meaning, but incorrect editing was done by the organization that publishes The Holy Science. (Self-Realization Fellowship)

It might also help to remember also that The Holy Science was penned in 1894, 42 years before Sri Yukteswar’s departure from this world in 1936. It may be significant that he was still a fairly young man at the time of the writing, and in later years he had other priorities guiding his disciples. Also the Yuga system of precise dates is noted only in the introduction to The Holy Science and does not constitute the central theme and enlightened teaching of the book. There were no computers in the year 556 when the Persian ayanamsa correction was devised, and no sophisticated telescopes and measuring devices. There was no Indian Calendar Reform committee (which later revised the zero ayanamsa date) to make sense of the confusion in religious festival dates in India.

Some might see another small wrinkle in the text in that today’s precession cycle is calculated to be approximately 25,800 years rather than the 24,000 cycle given in The Holy Science. However, Sri Yukteswar stated that our Sun is part of a binary system and revolves around its dual star. This once radical concept is now beginning to be taken seriously. As noted on the Binary Research site, Kepler tells us that bodies in orbit around another mass move in elliptical orbits. These orbits increase or decrease in speed as they move closer or further away from the common center of mass. (see http://www.binaryresearchinstitute.org)

The Binary Research site contains very interesting precession data analysis. Since, according to Sri Yukteswar’s yuga dating, we have only recently begun retracing the distance of the farthest point from our dual star (the date when the ascending Kali begins), as the Sun moves continually closer to the star, orbit speed will continue to increase shortening the precessional cycle. So for the historical survey in this article series, I’ll use the 24,000 cycle of The Holy Science.

Updating the Yuga Cycle

Disciples of Parmahansa Yogananda (whose Guru was Sri Yukteswar) and others (including members of the Binary Research Institute) who have read The Holy Science, have continued to cite the Yuga dates quoted therein without further thought or research. The Holy Science corrects the crucial misunderstanding of very prolonged Yuga dates—the great cycles of time. The only remaining problem is a small technical one: the incorrect figures in the almanacs due to a general lack of astronomical knowledge at the time the book was written.

Modern Computation: India's National Calendar

The zero ayanamsa date of 499 was devised in Kali Yuga. We are now well into the ascending Dwapara yuga, an age according to Sri Yukteswar when knowledge will rapidly advance in all areas. Is it possible that this advancement also involves a correction to the zero ayanamsa date?

Enter the Indian Calendar Reform Committee. In 1952 the Indian government decided it needed to put an end to the confusion of 30 or more different calendars being used among Hindus, Buddhist and Jains in numerous small villages for arriving at the dates of various religious festivals. These calendars were mostly based on the astronomical practices of local priests and calendar makers. The Calendar Reform Committee, formed in 1952 under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research ( CSIR) of the Government of India, recommended the preparation of the Indian Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. It was the task of the Committee to reconcile traditional calendrical practices with modern astronomical concepts. Precession was accounted for, and calculations of solar and lunar positions were based on accurate modern methods.

After several years of study and research, the calendar the Reform Committee recommended took effect on March 21, 1956; the ayanamsa was Lahiri’s, who was member secretary. Lahiri had calculated the rate of precession to be 50.27 seconds a year, and the date when the tropical and sidereal zodiacs were exactly aligned (zero ayanamsa date) was calculated to be 285 A.D.. The resulting official published ephemeris is a reference book astrologers use in calculating planetary positions for horoscopes. The ascending Kali Yuga would be calculated from the zero ayanamsa date of 285 rather than the Surya Siddhanta date of 499.

However, through the meticulous study of astrological timing over many years, the astrologer K. S. Krishnamurti adjusted the Lahiri ayanamsa in his own work by approximately six minutes, and published his ephemeris. A number of astrologers (including myself) prefer the Krishnamurti ayanamsa for (as we see it) its more accurate timing of events. This ayanamsa would adjust the start of the ascending Kali period by only six years to 291 A.D.. Mathematical astrologer and author Richard Houck confidently used a value between Lahiri and Krishnamurti which would give a zero ayanamsa date of 290 A.D..

At this time it may not be possible to isolate a completely precise zero ayanamsa date, but most likely it falls between 285 A.D. (Lahiri) and 291 A.D. (Krishnamurti). Thus, in order to facilitate comparison with the Surya Siddhanda year of 499, I’ll use the rounded 290 A.D. (C.E.) date as the basis of modern yuga calculation. For those who wish to precisely refer to the Indian calendar research, I recommend Lahiri’s date of 285.

It’s been said that in the interests of working harmoniously with the committee, Lahiri departed a few years from the year he calculated to be the correct zero date. But I cannot verify that as a fact. Perhaps the Committee wished to place Spica at exactly zero of the sign Libra, which is the placement of the star with the Lahiri ayanamsa. Using 290 as the zero date, now in 2010 we would be in 520 Dwapara within the ascending 12,000 yuga cycle. The exact year doesn’t matter so much as long as yuga dates aren’t the official accepted world timing method.

It may only be working astrologers who actually use the ayanamsa value in their work to mark signs and their subdivisions (vargas) who realize there is a problem with the 499 zero date. It may be up to those astrologers to demonstrate that a particular and precise ayanamsa gives the best results using several different research methods. Sir Yukteswar did not need to be concerned about such precision. His spiritual intuition was all he needed to correctly interpret the stars for his disciples and others. Those of us without such vision must use precise mathematics for our readings.

Spica at zero degrees of sidereal Libra was the general placement of that star in Babylonia and early Hellenistic times (based on records of 22 ancient Greek and 5 Babylonian horoscopes). Thus, calculations have come full circle from the earliest recorded birth charts through centuries of zodiac confusion (including the Persian reform which appears in Surya Siddhanta) to the present. We arrive back at a zodiac with bright Spica, which is close to the ecliptic, marking the point opposite the first degree of Aries. There is no star actually marking the first minute of sidereal Aries if Spica does indeed mark the central point of the fixed (sidereal) zodiac; the closest star is about half a degree into the sign, the small star Kurdah in Cepheus, the King, far to the north. Reveti itself falls in 26 degrees of Pisces, so we have a four degree adjustment from the Surya Siddhanta position of zero Aries.

Many of today’s Jyotish astrologers know from experience that the old Reveti value from the Persian reform period does not produce varga (divisional) charts that work. That is, planetary positions in these charts don’t describe the lives of family or clients. The Lahiri value has worked well for the majority of astrologers, but so has the slightly different Krishnamurti value which gives earlier dates for planetary periods (dasas).

Testing the Historical Record

A study of historical events suggests that Dwarpara began earlier than 1699, the date based on the Surya Siddhanta zero date of 499. The modern Lahiri/Krishnamurti ayanamsa value places the very beginning of Dwapara in 1490 as compared to the the year 1699 in The Holy Science. This is a 209 year difference, not large in the scheme of 24,000 or more years, but fairly significant from our limited perspective in time. According to Sri Yukteswar, the first 200 years of Dwapara Yuga constitute a period of transition or adjustment. We might expect the last shreds of the Kali cycle to have died during the 100 year Kali transitional period while the Dwapara transitional (sandhi) 200 year period would bring new advances in world development. What happened in this 209 year period? We have the following date lineup:

Yuga Periods Modern Dating (Lahiri-Krishnamurti) Surya Siddhanta (Persian Dating)
Ascending Kali Begins 290 A.D. 499 A.D.
Kali Transitional Period (100 years) 1390-1490 1599-1699
Dwapara Transitional Period (200 years) 1490-1690 1699-1899
Dwapara Proper Begins 1690 1899
Age of Leo-Aquarius Begins 2290 2499

First we look at the earlier beginning of Dwapara based on the Lahiri/Krishnamuarti (L-K) ayanamsas. This period begins in 1490. During the 200 year transitional period (1490-1690), the Surya Siddhanta dating has the world remaining in Kali Yuga. The Surya Siddhanta (SS) Kali transitional 100 years does not begin until 1599. So during the first 100 years of the transition into L-K Dwapara the SS value places the world in Kali proper. The second 100 years of the 200 year transitional Dwapara period correlates with the ending Kali sandhi 100 years according to SS dating. Sri Yukteswar stated that in Dwapara Yuga we can expect rapid development in all areas of life. The lists below are not exhaustive, but I’ve tried to include some of the important highlights.



Lahiri-Krishnamurti: First 100 years of Dwapara Sandhi
Persian (Surya Siddhanta):
Last 100 years of Kali proper

Exploration and World Expansion
The Atlas of Discovery titled the period from 476 A.D. to 1400 “The World Sleeps.” In contrast the period beginning in 1400 is titled “The Great Age” [of exploration]. Although the first major event in this period didn’t occur until 1492 (two years after the start of L-K Dwapara sandhi), the text begins:

In the 1400's and early 1500's in one glorious surge of voyaging and discovery, the invisible frontiers that had so long surrounded Europe fell...in 50 short years European sailors rounded the Cape of Good Hope [Vasco Da Gamma, 1497] and sailed to India, crossed the Atlantic to the Americas [Columbus, 1492], and at last...sailed all the way around the world [Magellan, 1520-1522]. (p. 32)

The earliest significant date in this time period is engraved in every school child’s memory: 1492, the year that Columbus discovered the Americas. It’s interesting that prior to this date Columbus could not acquire financing for his planned voyage. The same is true of attempts to find a sea route to India. Da Gamma only succeeded in 1497 after a number of exploratory trips by navigators beginning in 1434. (Thus 1400 is noted as the beginning of “The Great Age.”) Only in 1492 did Spain finally agree to fund the first of Columbus’ voyages. It's particularly interesting that John Haywood's much respected Atlas of World History uses 1492 as the inaugural date of a large section of text titled "The Early Modern World" (Part 4: 1492-1783). Thus, in the view of scholars, this date ushsered in a new era of world history.

Significant Dates of Exploration
1492 Columbus proves the world is round
1495 Cabot discovers Labrador
1498 Vasco Da Gamma discovers the sea route to India (Cape of Good Hope)
1513 Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean
1520-1522 Magellan’s ships circumnavigate the globe

It’s difficult to conceive that these events could occur while the world was still in the darkness of Kali proper, which is the case with the Surya Suddhanta dating.

Art: 1500 plus: a period that saw the works of great masters
Michaeangelo (David, Sistine Chapel, etc.)
Leonardo Da Vinci
Durer (and others)
Plus significant architectural activity took place in this time period.

Religion, Politics and Technology
1517-1523 Luther’s revolt followed by protestant reformation
1526 First English Bible
Henry VIII breaks with Rome
Elizabeth I becomes queen
1539 Explosive spread of printing

1543 Copernicus: heliocentric theory: On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres
1581+ Galileo’s discoveries and inventions
1569 First Mercator map of the world
1572 Tycho Brahe: The earth is not the center of the universe.



Lahiri-Krishnamurti: Second 100 years of Dwapara Sandhi
Persian (Surya Siddhanta):
100 years of Kali Sandhi prior to Dwapara

Science and Astronomy
1593 Galileo’s thermometer
1600 The English physician William Gilbert made a study of electricity and magnetism
1600s Tacho Brahe (world’s foremost astronomer): Catalog of heavenly bodies
1600+ Kepler’s Three Laws of Planetary Motion
1603 Bayer: astronomical atlas Uranomentria (Includes southern skies and brightness designations)
1610 Galileo invents the telescope
1614 John Napier discovers logarithms (used by astronomers, navigators, scientists)
1623 The slide rule is invented.
1628 Harvey notes circulation of blood.
1622 Robert Boyle: study of gases
1669 Isaac Newton: Matter is composed bo particles in motion.
1673 Huggens: math of the pendulum, laws of centrifugal force
1689 Life on other planets a possibility (Huggens)
1675 Greenwich Observatory (astronomer John Flamsteed)
1679 Cellarius: Celestial atlas (Harmonica Macrocosmica)

Politics, Cultural Development
1603 Scotland and England unite (death of Elizabeth I)
1600+ European settlers in America
1694 Bank of England formed

Art and Literature
William Shakespeare
Milton: Paradise Lost
Flemish masters
Moghul art flourishes

1604 Carracci: Farnese Palace ceiling in Rome
1605 Golden Temple at Amritsar completed
1653 Taj Mahal is completed

Disasters and Aftermath
1665 Plague--black death
1666 London fire
1669 London is re-built.

The events listed above are some of the main developments listed in D.K. Publishing’s Millennium Year By Year. If Dwapara Yuga does signal a time of rapid development, it’s difficult to see all those events happening while the world is still under Kali’s yoke. This would be the case with the older computation that placed Reveti (zeta Piscium) at the beginning of Aries. From 1685-1691 (depending on the ayanamsa) modern computation puts the world in Dwapara proper while the Persian correction used in Surya Siddhanta places the world at the beginning of Dwapara sandhi.


It’s fairly easy to confuse the Yugas with the 2000 year astrological sign periods marked by precession. Just at the junction of the descending Kali period of 1200 years and the ascending Kali period of the same length the change from Libra/Aries to Virgo/Pisces occurs. (See diagram below.) Here is where Sri Yukteswar differs from most modern theorists. As was done in ancient time, he aligns the astrological precessional cycles with the autumn rather than the spring equinox.

According to this system we’d be in the final years of the age of Virgo rather than Pisces. But astrologers know that zodiac signs come in pairs of opposites, so in the Virgo period we’d see events that reflect Pisces, just as in the Pisces period we’d see Virgo type events. It is may be impossible to separate the polarity of astrological signs.

The combination of Virgo and Pisces is clearly reflected in the “Great Age” of exploration, the period when the world opened to expansion via the sea. We have the dual symbolism here of Mercury lord of Virgo: travel/voyages and Jupiter, lord of Pisces: growth and expansion; Neptune, co-lord of Pisces symbolizes sea voyages. Jupiter alone would not give us the symbolism for world-wide voyages. We need Mercury and Jupiter together plus Neptune, god of the sea. (It's interesting that while we're still in the age of Virgo-Pisces, a recently released movie, "Percy Jackson & the Olympians" features the main character as a son of Neptune.) We are also seeing major events featuring water such as the destruction of New Orleans and tsunamis taking the lives of many, plus record breaking storms throughout the world.

The Age of Aquarius? Not yet. It makes sense that cultural, geographic and scientific events of the ages reflect the planets (mythology) associated with the astrological signs. Jupiter was the deity of rain, which must include snow—water from the sky. The massive amount of information that flows through the world wide web every day is Mercurial. The dishonesty of politicians and trickery on the internet reflect both Mercury (the trickster) and Neptune, who along with his children was master of many disguises. Sexuality and sensuality (Venus exalted in Pisces) is still a way of life, and at present shows no sign of diminishing. The body is glorified and worhipped as are the skills of which the body is capable (the Olympics).

Being past the mutation or transitional period, we’re now fully into the ascending Dwapara Yuga. At the same time we’re nearing the end of the 2000 year cycle of Virgo/Pisces. Yet, using the year 290 as the shift into Virgo-Pisces, we won’t see the beginning of Leo/Aquarius until 2290. How much of the 2000 year period assigned to each zodiac sign could be considered a mutation period? Perhaps 200 years at the beginning and end, which would leave 1600 years as the central period of a precessional sign cycle. Subtracting 200 from the shift to Leo/Aquarius in 2290 gives us the date of 2090 as the start of the hypothetical mutation period of our current precessional cycle (Virgo-Pisces). This means that we have hardly seen even the flickering of a beginning to “The Age of Aquarius.” If we use The Holy Science (Surya Siddhanta) dating, the mutation period would be 209 years later in 2299.

Are we mistaking events of Dwapara Yuga for the Age of Aquarius? This is a distinct possibility, for Sri Yukteswar called Dwapara “the electrical age,” which we are certainly well into with the proliferation of electronic toys, cell phones, three computers in every home, wireless devices, satellites circling the earth, etc.

Though beginning to falter, our churches (Piscean) are still intact, and probably will be for sometime. Religious conflict continues on various fronts. Ancient tribal rivalries continue with thousands dying in bitter conflicts. Suicide bombings show no sign of abating. (This is being written in 2010.) Most of our technological development including rapid transit systems in the cities, jet planes, space shuttles, mega ocean liners, electronic communication devices, etc. come under the rulership of Mercury of the winged sandals, lord of Virgo. The bloodshed and conflict of the Piscean age continue in many areas throughout the world. Men’s egos continue to rule, though isolated groups and individuals are attempting to bring light and peace to the world. Geographical chaos is on-going with erratic weather, floods and earthquakes. One wishes indeed that the Age of Aquarius (Leo) would hasten.

What can we expect in the approaching Age of Leo-Aquarius? Our expectations, based on the tropical zodiac, most likely need some correcting. If indeed the emphasis will be on Leo as well as its polar opposite, Aquarius, we should expect solar symbolism. In India the Sun is the symbol for universal Spirit-God. In the west, due to zodiac confusion, the Sun tends to be associated with the ego.

If we place importance on the autumn equinox rather than the vernal equinox, using the stars as a guide we get an earlier start date. Pisces is a very long constellation, meaning it will take much longer for the vernal point to conjoin the stars of Aquarius. According to Robert Hand, the vernal equinox does not contact the last star of the western fish until 2813! He based this date on the Fagan-Allen ayanamsa, era 221. However with the L-K ayanamsa, an autumnal equinox chart cast for 2290, the start of the Leo transitional period, places the equinox only four degrees from Denebola, the bright star in the Lion’s tail. By 2590, 300 years into the Age of the autumnal Lion and perhaps 100-150 years past the transitional period, the equinox is only minutes from Denebola using our current rate of precession.

One source which has some interesting commentary on the coming age is Elisabeth Haich’s Initiation. Her spiritual master showed her mental pictures of the coming ages. Whether or not we want to take these pictures at face value, but lacking any other reliable source, they may be interesting to consider. It’s easy to see both Leo (the Sun) and Aquarius (wave energy, removal of boundaries) in the visionary pictures Haich was shown. Also from these pictures we obviously have a way to go before entering the so-called “Age of Aquarius.”

Elisabeth Haich, Initiation, pp. 255-266

Additional Note:
Walter Cruttenden comments on a possible earlier Descending-Ascending Kali Transition Date

In private correspondence on September 24, 2010, Walter Cruttenden wrote via email:

"It has always puzzled me that Sri Yukteswar used a precession rate of 54" p/y for the 1394 year period between 1894 AD and 500 AD...While 54" p/y would be the long term average of an orbit that takes 24,000 years, it does not reflect the waxing and waning that we actually observe in elliptical orbits and therefore does not agree with the estimated observable precesson rate over the last 1500 years which has been closer to 50...Bottom line, it is possible that Yukteswar was off by some years because he used averages, and if this is the case then it probably pushes the apoapsis date [farthest point in relation to a binary orbit] back 100 to 250 years to between 250 and 400 AD..."


Cruttenden, Walter, Lost Star of Myth and Time (Pittsburgh, PA: St. Lynn's Press, 2006)

Dryer, Ronnie Gale, Indian Astrology, The Aquarian Press, 1990

Grun, Bernard, The Timetables of History (Simon and Schuster, 1991)

Haich, Elisabeth, Initiation (New York: Gallery Books, 1999)

Hand, Robert, Essays on Astrology (Rockport, MA: Para Research, 1982)

Haywood, John, Ph.D (ed.), Atlas of World History (Andromeda Oxford Ltd, 1997, Reprint Barns & Noble Books, 2000)

Holden, James H., “The Classical Zodiac,” AFA Journal of Research Vol. 7, No. 2 (AFA, 1995)

Millennium Year by Year (D K Publishing, Inc., 1999)

Roberts, Gail, ed., Atlas of Discovery (New York: Gallery Books, 1989)

Yukteswar, Swami Sri, The Holy Science (Self-Realization Fellowship, 1984)

Web Sources:

The Hindu Calendar System (http//hinduism.about.com/od/history/a/calendar.htm)

“History” (link) Indian history and astronomical data (http//www.packolkata.org/history.html)

“Sidereal Calculations" http://astrozet.net/Manual/swisseph.htm#_Toc6813680

(References revised April 27, 2010)

© 2010 Therese Hamilton, East-West Publishing

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